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(三)当代茶具的组成

发布日期:01-01    点击次数:

     <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶器具在中华民族的茶饮历史中,是不断创新、变化的过程,茶具的组合走过了从“简”到“繁”;又从“繁”到“简”的循环发展过程。不少古茶具已因茶事变革而被后人掘弃,如风炉、茶碾等,今天只能在博物馆藏中方可睹见。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">从今天茶饮生活和茶事活动的实际出发,我们将茶具划分为“煮水器具”、“备茶器具”、“泡茶器具”、“品茶器具”、“辅助用具”等五个部分。目前常见的五部分茶具,共约<span>20</span>件左右,随着茶品的不断开发、创新和时代精神的融人以及现代生活需要的推动,这些茶具的组成还会不断地变化,不断地推陈出新。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">1</span><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">、煮水器具</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">煮水器具是指用于泡茶用水的贮水、煮水的茶具。今天的备水茶具主要为煮水器和开水壶两种。</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">煮水器:它是指“有热源”的茶具,如具有酒精加热或电加热的煮水器。为了茶艺表演的需要,港台茶艺馆中经常备有一种“茗炉”。炉身为陶器,可与陶水壶配套,中间置酒精灯,点燃后,将装好开水的水壶放在“茗炉”上,可保持水温,便于表演。</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">为方便当场烧煮沸水,台湾茶人推出了别具一格的电水壶。电水壶由上、下两部分组成,上部为内置电热盘的盛水壶,下部为盘状通电的承座,上下分开,上部水壶可方便自如地运用。电水壶以不锈钢材料制成,拋光成银白色,光亮洁净,后又推出了外表为深赭色的不锈钢电水壶。此种电水壶名为“随手泡”,一听便知是件十分方便顺手的茶器。目前大陆市场上有多家单位制造销售这种“随手泡”。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">开水壶:用于煮水并暂时贮存沸水的水壶。水壶,古代称注子,现在亦有称水注的。主要用来烧开水泡茶。以古朴厚重的陶质水壶最为人喜爱。金属的水壶传热快,又坚固耐用,适合城市的生活节奏,但是煮水时所产生的金属离子会影响茶香茶味,不大适宜。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">港台地区流行一种像玻璃一样透明的石英壶,可避免金属水壶的缺点,颇受人们的欢迎,近年来内地的茶艺馆也多有采用。保温瓶也是贮存沸水的茶具,其保温性能优于一般的开水壶。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">2</span><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">、备茶器具</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">备茶器具是指在茶事过程中用于存放茶叶、置放茶叶的茶具。其中,常用的有茶叶罐、茶则、茶漏、茶匙等。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶叶罐:用来贮放茶叶的罐子,以陶瓷为佳,也有用锡罐贮茶。不宜用塑料和玻璃罐子贮茶(塑料会产生异味,玻璃透光容易使茶叶氧化变色)</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶则:则者,准则也;用来衡量茶叶用量,确保投茶量准确;这是一种从茶叶罐中取茶叶放入壶盏内的器具,通常以竹子或优质木材制成,但不能用有香味的木材做茶侧。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶漏:圆形小漏斗,当用小茶壶泡茶时,将它放在壶口,茶叶从中漏进壶中,以免洒到壶外。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶匙:一种细长的小耙子,帮助将茶则中的茶叶耙入茶壶、茶盏,其尾端尖细可用来清理壶嘴淤塞,是必备的茶具。一般以竹、骨、角制成。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;mso-pagination: none"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">3</span><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">、泡茶器具</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">泡茶器具是指泡茶过程中的主体器皿,如茶壶、茶海、茶盏、泡茶器等。</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">茶壶:泡茶时将茶叶放人壶中,再注入开水,将壶盖盖好即可。一般以陶瓷制成。壶之大小视饮茶人数而定,泡工夫茶多用小壶。</span></p> <p style="text-indent:21.0pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">茶盏:是一种瓷质盖碗茶杯,可以用它代替茶壶泡茶,再将茶汤倒入茶杯供客人饮用,但最多只供四人饮用,局限性较大。由于它可泡任何茶类,因此有不少人采用。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶海:又称“公道杯”或“茶盅”,是用于贮放茶汤的。为了使冲泡后的茶汤均匀,以及不使因宾客闲谈致使壶中茶汤浸泡过久而苦涩,先将壶中泡出的茶汤倒在茶海里,然后再分别倒入茶杯中供客人品尝。这是港台茶艺界新创制的茶具。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">4</span><span style="font-size:10.5pt; font-family:宋体">、品茶器具</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">品茶器具是指盛故茶汤并用于品饮的茶具。其中有茶杯、品茗杯、闻香杯等。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">品茗杯:俗称“茶杯”,为装茶汤直接供客人饮用的器具。它是用于品尝茶汤的杯子,可因茶叶的品种不同,而选用不同的杯子。一般以白色瓷杯为好,也有用紫砂茶杯喝工夫茶的。茶杯有大小之分,小杯用来品饮乌龙茶等浓度较高的茶,大杯可泛用于绿茶、花茶和普洱茶等。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">闻香杯:是一种专门用于嗅闻茶汤在杯底留香的茶具。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">5 </span><span style="font-size:10.5pt; font-family:宋体">、辅助用具</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">辅助用具是指用于煮水、备茶、泡饮过程中的各种辅助茶具。常见的有如下几种:</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶荷:又称“茶碟”,是用来放置已量定的备泡茶叶,同时兼可放置观赏用样茶的茶具。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶针<span>:</span>它是用于清理茶壶嘴堵塞时的茶具,一般在泡功夫茶时,因壶小易造成壶嘴阻塞而备用的。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">漏斗:它是为了方便将茶叶放入小壶一种茶具。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶盘:它是放置茶具,端捧茗杯用的托盘。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">壶盘:它是放置冲茶的开水壶,以防开水壶烫坏桌面的茶盘。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶池:一仲扁腹的圆形罐子,上有一盖,盖上有孔,泡茶时将茶壶或茶盏置于上面,多余的水便可流入池中,多为瓷器制成。它是用于存放弃水较多的一种盛器。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">水盂:一种小型瓷缸,用来贮放废弃之水或茶渣,俗称“废水缸”。它是存放弃水的茶具,其容量小于茶池。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">汤滤:它是用于过滤茶汤用的器物,现在多为金属制成.</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">承托:它是放置汤滤或杯盖等物的茶具。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶具组合:通常人们将茶则、茶匙、茶针、茶夹四件装在一个特制竹或木罐中,组合起来便于收放和使用,通常称为“茶匙组合”。</span></p> <p style="margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-justify: inter-ideograph;text-indent:21.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0"><span style="font-size:10.5pt;font-family:宋体;">茶巾:又称“涤方”,以棉麻等纤维制成,用来揩抹溅溢茶水的清洁用具。</span></p>

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